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Canada Overview

Source: Chinese Embassy

【Country name】 Canada (Canada).

【Area】 of 9.98 million square kilometers, ranked second in the world, including 9.09 million square kilometers of land area, freshwater cover area of 890,000 square kilometers.

【Population】, 37.07 million. Mainly for the British, French and other European descendants, the indigenous People (Indians, Métis and Inuit) 1.67 million. English and French are the official languages. The majority of the population is Catholic and 36% of the Christian Protestant.

【Capital】 Ottawa (Ottawa), located in Ontario Prov.. The Capital region (including the city of Ottawa in Ontario Prov., the Gatineau and surrounding towns in Quebec, Prov.) has a population of 1.37 million and an area of 4715 square kilometres.

Average annual maximum temperature 15~26℃ (July), minimum temperature -16~-6℃ (January).

【Head of State】 Queen Elizabeth II of England. The governor, appointed by the Queen, is acting in his authority. The Governor is nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the Queen for a term of generally 5 years. The current governor, Julie Payette Julie Payet, took office in October 2017.

【Important Festival】 National Day (Canada Day) July 1.

【The Profile】is located in northern North America. East of the Atlantic Ocean, west of the Pacific Ocean, the northwest of the United States Alaska State, south of the United States mainland, north of the Arctic Ocean. The coastline is about 240,000 kilometers long. The eastern temperature is slightly lower, the southern climate is moderate, the western climate is mild and humid, the north is the cold tundra climate. The highest temperatures in the Midwest are more than 40 ℃, and the lowest temperatures in the north are as low as 60 ℃. Originally a place of residence for the Indians and the Inuit. He was reduced to a French colony in early 17th century and later ceded to Britain. July 1, 1867, Britain merged the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick Prov. and Nova Scotia Prov. into a federation, becoming the earliest dominion in the UK. Since then, other provinces have joined the union. In the 1926, Canada gained diplomatic independence. In 1931, Canada became a member of the Commonwealth, and its parliament was given equal legislative power with the British Parliament, but there was still no constitutional amendment.

In 1982, the Queen of England signed the Canadian Constitution Act, and the Parliament was given full powers of constitutionalism and constitutional amendment.

【policies】Since the establishment of the Commonwealth in 1867, the Liberal Party and the Progressive Conservatives have largely been in power. In 1993, the Liberal Party won the federal election and Jean Cretien Jean Chrétien became prime minister. In the 1997 and 2000 general elections, the Liberal Party won in a row, and K was in power. In December 2003, Cretien announced his retirement, and Paul Martin succeeded the Prime minister. In June 2004, with a general election, the Liberal Party won again, and Martin was re-elected as Prime minister. Stephen Harper, the party’s leader, served as prime Minister in January 2006 when the Conservatives took power over the Liberal Party in the general election. In October 2008 and May 2011, the Conservatives won the general election two times and were in power, Happellian as prime minister.

In October 2015, the Liberal Party won the 42nd general election, Justin Trudeau Justin Trudeau, the party’s leader, as prime minister. The Constitution does not yet have a complete constitution, consisting mainly of constitutional acts passed in various historical periods, including the British North America Act, which was passed by the English Parliament in 1867. The Constitution provides for the introduction of a federal parliamentary system, honoring the king as the head of State of Canada, the Governor as the Queen of England, and the English and French as the official languages.

【Parliament】The purpose of the Constitution is peace, order and good governance. “Parliament" consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives, and bills passed by the House and Senate are signed into law by the governor. The governor has the power to convene and dissolve parliament. The Senate has a total of 105 seats, which are allocated according to the proportion of the population and historical practices of the provinces. Senators are nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the governor. Appointed by June 2, 1965 for a lifetime, after which retirement is appointed until the age of 75. As of August 2018, the Senate seats were 45 seats for independent senators, 32 for the Conservatives, 11 for the Liberal Party and 8 seats for independents, with 9 seats vacant.

The current speaker is George Furey George Foury, who took office in December 2015. The House of Representatives is 338 seats, and deputies are directly elected for a period of 4 years by direct federal constituencies divided by the proportion of the population of the provinces. October 19, 2015, plus the 42nd session of the federal election. Liberal Party leader Justin Trudeau led the party to win a majority in the house. As of August 2018, the seats of the House of Representatives were: 183 seats for the Liberal Party, 97 seats for the Conservatives, 41 seats for the New Democratic Party, 5 seats for the Quebec group, 5 seats for the rise of the Quebec party, 2 seats for independent members, 1 seats for the Green Party and 1 seats for the Collective Alliance Federation.

The current speaker is Jeff Rigan Geoff Regan, the Liberal Party, who took office in December 2015.

【Government  cabinet】. The leader of the party with a majority in the House of Representatives served as Prime Minister and formed a cabinet. The Liberal government took office in November 2015 and has 35 members of the current government cabinet, notably Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, Minister for Foreign Affairs Christia Friland (Chrystia Freeland), Minister of Defence Harget Singh Sayan (Harjit Singh Sajjan), Minister of Finance William Francis Mono William Francis Morneau, Minister of international trade pluralism James Gordon Carl James Gordon Carr, chairman of the Treasury Committee and Minister for Digital government Affairs Scott Brisson (Scott Brison) , the Minister of Natural Resources, Amargit Soussy (Amarjeet Sohi).

【Administrative division】 of the country divided into 10 provinces and 3 regions. The 10 provinces are British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward I., Newfoundland and Labrador, and 3 are Yukon, Northwest and Nunavut. Provincial governor, provincial speaker, governor and provincial cabinet are established in the provinces.

Corresponding positions and institutions are also established in the region.

【judication】 has federal, provincial and local (general refers to municipal) level three courts. The federal court generally receives financial, maritime and related economic cases. The Supreme Court is composed of 1 justice and 8 jury judges, who mainly arbitrate major political, legal, constitutional issues, as well as major civil and criminal cases, in federal and provincial appeals. The Supreme Court’s decision is final. Supreme Court judges are nominated by the Prime Minister, appointed by the governor and retired at the age of 75. Chief Justice Richard Wagner took office in December 2017. The Minister of Justice and Attorney General, Jodi Wilson-reibold (Jody wilson-raybould), took office in November 2015. The provinces have provincial high courts and provincial courts, which deal mainly with criminal cases and other important cases related to the province, but there are also provincial courts that hear civil cases.

【Political party】The district court generally hears civil cases.

(1) Liberal Party (Liberal): The ruling party. Established in 1873. Representing the interests of industrial monopoly capital groups and taking into account the interests of small and medium enterprises. The leader is Justin Trudeau, the eldest son of former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who was elected in April 2013.

(2) Conservative Party: Official opposition party, conservative. Merged in December 2003 by the Alliance Party and the Progressive Conservatives, representing the banking insurance industry, the rail transport industry, the energy industry monopoly capital and the interests of large farmers. The leader is Andrew Scheer, Andrew Hill was elected in May 2017.

(3) New Democratic Party (Democratic Party): opposition parties. 1961 was joined by the “Alliance for Civilian Cooperation" and the “Canadian Labour conference". Belonging to the middle-left Social Democratic Party, representing the interests of the middle and lower working class, advocating that the government should provide more public goods to make up for market defects. The leader is Jagmit Singh (jagmeet Singh), elected in October 2017.

(4) Quebec group (Bloc Quebecois): opposition party. Established in 1990. Representing the interests of Quebec people and advocating Quebec’s independence. The interim leader is Mario Bollieu (Mario Beaulieu), who took office in June 2018. Other parties also have the Greens and so on.

【Important Person】 Julie Payet: Governor. Female, born in October 1963 in Montreal, Canada. Bachelor of international Science, Atlantic United World College, Bachelor of Electronic Engineering, McGill University, Canada, master of Computer Engineering, University of Toronto. He became an astronaut of the Canadian Space Agency in 1992 and the Chief astronaut of the Canadian Space Agency from 2000 to 2007, who went on a mission to space two times in May 1999 and July 2009, was the first Canadian to enter the International Space Station and the second female astronaut in Canadian history. After withdrawing from the space industry, he has served in the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C., and the Montreal Science Center in Canada.

He became the 29th Governor of Canada in October 2017 and the fourth female governor in Canadian history. Justin Trudeau: Prime Minister. December 1971 Born in Ottawa, with a Bachelor of Arts and a Master of Environmental Geology from McGill University, and a Bachelor of Education from the University of British Columbia. He was first elected to the Federation of Deputies in 2008 and re-elected in 2011. Elected leader of the Liberal Party in April 2013.

【Economy】The Liberal Party won the general election in October 2015 and took office as Canada’s 23rd Prime Minister in November. Plus is one of the seven major industrial countries in the West. Manufacturing, high-tech industries, services developed, resource industry, primary manufacturing and agriculture are the main pillars of the national economy. In recent years, economic growth in Canada has been stronger, with growth at the top of the developed industrial countries. Trade to the nation, dependence on foreign trade is greater, the economy is deeply influenced by the United States. The main economic indicators for 2017 are as follows:

Gross domestic product (GDP): CAD 1.74 trillion GDP growth: 3.3% unemployment rate: 6.3% (Source: Canada Bureau of Statistics website). If there is no special description, the same below)

【resources】vast territory, rich in forests and mineral resources. There are more than 60 kinds of minerals, mainly: potassium, uranium, tungsten, cadmium, nickel, lead and so on. Crude oil reserves second only to Venezuela and Saudi Arabia, 97% of which exist in the form of oil sands. The proven oil sands crude oil reserves are 173.2 billion barrels, accounting for 81% of the world’s proven oil sands reserves. Forest area of more than 400 million hectares (ranked third in the world, after Russia and Brazil), timber production forest area of 2.86 million square kilometers, accounting for 44% and 29% of the national territory, respectively; The total accumulation of timber is about 19 billion cubic meters. About 890,000 square kilometres of the territory are covered by freshwater, with sustainable freshwater resources accounting for 7% of the world.

【Industry】in 2017 plus manufacturing output value of 181.72 billion Canadian dollars, accounting for 10.44% of GDP, 1.694 million of employees, accounting for 9.4% of the country’s employed population. The construction industry has a GDP of $125.35 billion, accounting for 7.2% of GDP and 1.385 million employees, accounting for 7.7% of the country’s employed population.

【Agriculture and animal husbandry】in 2017, the total output value of agriculture, forestry and fisheries was CAD 27.45 billion, accounting for 1.5% of GDP. The main cultivation of wheat, barley, flax, oats, rapeseed, corn, feed and other crops. Arable land accounts for about 16% of the land area, of which about 68 million hectares of arable land, accounting for 7.4% of the land area. Plus fisheries developed, 75% of the export of fishery products, is the world’s largest exporter of fishery products.

【Service Industry】 2017 output value of 1,233,680,000,000 Canadian dollars, accounting for about 70.9% of the GDP of the year, 14.247 million employees, accounting for the country’s total labor force of 78.8%. “Tourism" in 2017 tourism revenue of about 85.6 billion Canadian dollars, the reception of about 20.85 million foreign tourists. The main tourist cities are Vancouver, Ottawa, Toronto, Montreal, Quebec City and so on.

【Transportation】transportation is developed, water, land and air transport are very convenient, per capita traffic lines in the world’s forefront. The total output of the transport industry in 2017 was $79.16 billion, or about 4.5% per cent of GDP for the year. A total of 907,000 jobs were provided, representing 5% of the country’s jobs. The details are as follows: Railway: Total length approx. 72,200 km. Highway: Total length approx. 1.4089 million km.

The Trans-Canadian motorway across Canada stretches from Victoria on the east coast of the Pacific Ocean to St.john, a total length of about 7821 km, the longest national highway in the world. Water transport: The St. Lawrence Canal Deepwater Channel is 3769 km long and is the longest canal in the world, with ship navigation arriving from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. With a total of 25 large deep-water ports and 650 small ports, Vancouver port is one of the largest ports.

Air freight: Major airports include Toronto, Vancouver, Calgary, Montreal and other international airports.

【Fiscal finance】 when Trudeau became prime minister in November 2015, he proposed to increase government spending and stimulate economic growth through deficit finance. In March 2017, Canada’s finance minister, Mono, announced a 2017/2018 budget deficit of $28.5 billion in the fiscal year, which will increase investment in key areas such as innovation, infrastructure construction and vocational training, and increase support for women, children, students, indigenous peoples and vulnerable groups.

The budget situation in recent years is as follows (in billions of Canadian dollars):

2014/20152015/20162016/20172017/2018

income 2763291228773047 expenditure 2792296631713332 surplus -29-54-294-285

(Source: Ministry of Finance website) by the end of 2017, the additional foreign exchange reserves had been $86.625 billion, and the government had stopped stocking gold since March 2016.

The main banks are:

(1) Royal Bank of Canada: Founded in 1864, the largest private bank. The total value of assets in 2017 amounted to cad 1.27 trillion.

(2) Imperial Bank of Canada (Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce): Merged by Commercial Bank of Canada (established in 1867) and Imperial Bank of Canada (established in 1875) in 1961. Total assets in 2017 were approximately CAD 565.3 billion.

(3) Bank of Montreal: Established in 1817. Total assets in 2017 were approximately CAD 710 billion.

【Foreign trade】 plus economic dependence on foreign trade is serious, 2017 foreign merchandise trade volume of 1.1232 trillion Canadian dollars, trade deficit of about 24 billion Canadian dollars.

In recent years, the foreign trade situation is as follows (in billions of Canadian dollars): 20132014201520162017 exports 4719.525286.135253.045212.55496 Imports 4755.795241.685477.655473.25736 Difference-36 .2744.44-224.61-260.7-240 mainly exports energy products, automobiles and spare parts, consumer goods, metal and non-metallic mineral products, forest products and construction and packaging materials, etc., mainly imported machinery and equipment, automobiles and spare parts, industrial materials, consumer goods and so on. The main trading targets are the United States, China, Mexico, Japan, the European Union and so on. Exports to the United States accounted for 74.7% of total exports in 2017, 4.5% per cent of total exports to China, and imports from the United States accounted for 64.6% per cent of total imports, and imports from China accounted for 7.4% per cent of total imports.

【Outward investment】as at the end of 2017, the total amount of direct overseas investment was about 1.1211 trillion Canadian dollars.

【Foreign capital】 as at the end of 2017, the stock of foreign direct investment in Canada was about 824 billion Canadian dollars.

【Famous companies and economic groups with more contacts with China】

(1) Bombardier Corporation (Bombardier Inc.): Founded in 1942, headquartered in Quebec City, is the world’s only manufacturer of aircraft and locomotives at the same time, is the world’s third largest manufacturer of civilian aircraft, with operations covering more than 60 countries, employs more than 70,000 people. 2017 years operating income is CAD 16.21 billion. Chairman: Pierre Boduan (Pierre Beaudoin) Address: Rene-levesque Blvd West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, h3b 1y8.

(2) Bauer Corporation: Founded in 1925, mainly engaged in radio and television, publishing, finance, mining, real estate and other business, by the DeMarre family Holdings. A number of former prime ministers have served in Bauer since leaving office. 2017 turnover of CAD 51.3 billion. Chairman: Paul Demare (Paul Desmarais, Jr.), President and Chief Executive Officer: Andre Demare (Andrédesmarais). Address: 751 Square Victoria, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, h2y 2j3.

(3) The Canadian and Chinese Trade Council (Canada-china): A non-profit civil institution established in 1978 to promote and facilitate trade and investment between Canada and China. Headquartered in Toronto. Offices in Vancouver, Montreal, Calgary and Beijing and Shanghai, China. Chairman of the board: Peter Kruyt Peter Clette, also vice president of Bauer. President: Greheum Schanz Graham Shantz. Agency website: www.ccbc.com.

【The People’s Life】 plus social insurance system covers a wide range of elements, including unemployment insurance, unemployment benefits, health insurance, pensions, family allowances and disability benefits, which are borne and managed by the federal, provincial and municipal levels of government classification.

【The governor of the military】is the highest commander of the formal armed forces, the prime Minister is the de facto supreme commander, who, with the assistance of the Chief of Defence Staff, is responsible for building and leading the national forces. The collective defence of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, bilateral strategy and defence cooperation with the United States are the two pillars of its defence policy. Actively participate in United Nations peacekeeping operations and international observation and monitoring activities, advocating arms control, disarmament negotiations and the destruction of chemical and biological weapons. While maintaining military cooperation with the United States and Western European countries, military exchanges with the Asia-Pacific region have intensified in recent years. There are 68,000 active troops, 27,000 reserve forces and 24,000 civilian personnel. Military spending in 2017 was about $27.6 billion, or about 1.31% of GDP.

【Education】under the Canadian Constitution, the legislation, administration and implementation of education is the responsibility of provincial governments, and the federal government does not have a Ministry of Education. The provincial education funds are mainly self-financing, the federal government also from the student funding, scientific and technological innovation, talent development, Aboriginal education and other aspects to provide a certain amount of funds. Primary and secondary schools, occupations and higher education are universal, the quality of the world’s advanced level. Well-known institutions of higher learning are McGill University, University of Toronto, University of British Columbia, Queen’s University, University of Alberta, University of Montreal and University of Ottawa.

【Press and publication】 Canada’s mainstream media mainly have “one society" (Canadian News Agency), “two newspapers" (The Globe and Mail, the national mail), “three" (Canadian broadcaster TV, Canadian television, Global Television).

In addition, there are a number of important regional newspapers, such as the Toronto Star, the Montreal Daily, the Ottawa Citizen and the Quebec newspaper. Founded in 1917, the Canadian News agency is Canada’s largest news agency. Headquartered in Toronto, it has branches in 13 cities in Canada and Washington in the United States, contributing to about 100 daily newspapers and more than 500 radio and television stations in Canada.

The Associated Press and Reuters have a partnership with the society and are a major source of international news. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the only state-owned media Enterprise, was founded in 1936 and initially produced only radio programmes and began producing television programmes in 1952. The company has two television networks in English and French and four sets of broadcasts in English, France and Aboriginal languages and international stations, covering most of the country and its population.

Its international radio station, established in 1942 and broadcast in 9 languages, including Chinese, was suspended from short-wave broadcasting in June 2012 and broadcast only on the Internet, subject to budget cuts. Founded in 2010, Perth News became the largest paid newspaper newspaper group after acquiring the newspaper business of the bankrupt Garcy Global communications company. It currently owns 10 well-known newspapers, including the National Post and the Ottawa Citizen.